Instructions for Authors
Journal of Liaquat National Hospital (JLNH) is published by Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College. It is a peer-reviewed, open access, multi-disciplinary medical journal which serves as means for scientific information exchange in the national and international medical forum publishing issues biannually (April & October)
1. Manuscript SubmissionJournal of Liaquat National Hospital (JLNH) only accepts online manuscript submission. It is mandatory to submit Undertaking form and institutional ethical approval along with the manuscript. No manuscript will be accepted and responded without Undertaking form and institutional ethical approval. Although JLNH is an open access journal, there is currently no publication cost involved upon submission or publication of a manuscript.The journal is not providing either any subscription services . JLNH is owned and funded by the Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College.
Manuscript can be directly submitted to Article Submission Link To get Undertaking form click here Undertaking Form.
2. Authorship Criteria
The journal follows the guidelines of COPE and ICMJE criteria for authorship available at:
and ICMJE uniform requirements/recommendations for the conduct and reporting, editing publication of scholarly work in Medical Journals available at:
3. Categories of ArticlesJournal of Liaquat National Hospital (JLNH) publishes the below mentioned articles. The detailed guideline for each type of article is provided. Failure to follow the provided guidelines may result either in delayed manuscript process or article rejection.
3.1. Original Research ArticleA manuscript will be considered as Original Research Article if it is an observational study or Randomized Control trial (RCT). For RCT, it is mandatory to be registered with International Registry and must have a Trial Number. The length of original research article should be 2000-2500 words exclusive of abstract and references. There should be 20-25 references. Number of tables and/or illustrations can be at most three within a manuscript and should be provided at the end of manuscript.
It is suggested that authors prepare their manuscripts using the template available on the journal’s website, which will assist in preparation of the manuscript according to Journal’s Format. Download the Template. There must be following section (in the same sequence) within the original article:
a) Abstract: There should be a structured abstract up to 200-250 words. The abstract should reflect the content of the paper including methods used, results and conclusion drawn. The subheading in the abstract should include: a) Background b) Objective c) Methods (d) Results e) Conclusion.
Note: structured abstract is mandatory for the original/research articles.
3 to 8 keywords should be included at the end of an abstract. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can be used from the list of index medicus.
should provide a context or background for the study and include
rationale, objectives and hypothesis (where necessary). Cite only directly pertinent
references, and do not include data or conclusion from the work being reported. It is desirable to cite maximum 10 references within this section. The purpose of the study should be given at the end of the introduction.
Should include only information that was available at the time the
plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the
study belongs to the Results section. Methodology usually entertains: a) Description of the study participants including exclusion and inclusion criteria b) Technical information like instrument used, drugs or chemical used and all methods and procedures should be mentioned so that other researchers can reproduce the results. References should be given for establishing methodology as applicable c) Statistical methods with enough details to enable the reader for clear understanding of the methodology. Details of statistical methods include study design, sample size calculation (with reference), statistical tools used, P-values and confidence interval and statistical package used for data analysis with its version.
If an organization was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management), then this should be mentioned in the methods in detail. An statement indicating that the research was approved by an independent local, regional or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board) should also be included. Data should not be five years older.
Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures, in the text; emphasize or summarize only the MOST important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal.
Discussion should briefly summarize the main findings, and similarities or variations with other work done in same context. If the results vary, explore the possible mechanisms or explanations for the findings; emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and relate the implications of the findings in future research. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results section. Limitations of the study should also be mentioned in this section in the last paragraph.
The summary of the study should be provided in separate heading of conclusion. Concepts that are already addressed should not be repeated in this section. Unnecessary generalizations should be avoided. The author can address the possible implications for current practices or give recommendations only if applicable.
h) Consent for Publication:
If an article contains any person's data, such as individual details, audio-video material, etc., individual’s consent should be sought. In the case of children, parent’s consent or legal guardian must be sought. All such case reports must be properly complied with before publication.
i) Availability of Data:
The statement should describe how readers can access data that supports the findings of the study, and clearly outline the reasons why unavailable data cannot be published.
Statements accompanying to data availability should be mentioned in the manuscript under a separate section "Availability of Data" in the following format:
- Authors confirm that data supporting the results of this study are available in the article.
- Data-sets generated or analyzed during the current study are not made public because [mention the reason].
- Authors who wish not to share their data should clearly state that the data will not be shared, and state "not applicable".
- Data-related statement should be presented in the following format:
"Data supporting article’s results is available at [repository name] at [URL], reference number [reference number]”.
j) Conflict of Interest:
Authors should declare all relevant interests that may be considered contradictory. Authors should explain why every interest can represent a conflict. If there is no conflict, the authors should state this.
k) Funding Statement:
Authors should explain how research and publication of their article was funded, by the name of the sponsoring organization (fully written) and then the grant attached to the Square Letter. Number (s), for example: “This work was financially supported by [funding agency name] (Grant number xxx, yyy).
Similarly, If the study did not receive specific funding, but was performed as part of the authors' employment, please name this employer. If the fundraiser was involved in the decision to write, edit, approve, or publish the manuscript, please announce it.
The Acknowledgments section details special thanks, personal assistance, and dedications. Contributions from individuals who do not qualify for authorship should also be acknowledged here.
m) Author’s Contribution:
Contribution of all authors should be disclosed within this section specifying the role of each author in following of the steps of manuscript preparation; study concept, designing, result analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting, critical review and revision of initial draft. Authors’ contribution should be according to the criteria of authorship suggested by COPE . Initials should be used for referring individual authors. At the end of this section, a statement of manuscript reading and its approval by all author should be given.
References should follow the Vancouver style as per standards summarized in the NLM’s International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). wayback.archive-it.org/org-350/20190414183852
All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] within the manuscript. References should be listed in the following Vancouver Style.
- Journal: Boehm M, Nabel EG. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 - A new cardiac regulator. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1795-7Boehm M, Nabel EG. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 - A new cardiac regulator. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1795-7
- Book: Crabtree RH. The organometallic chemistry of the transition metals. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley & Sons 2001.
- Book Chapter: Yeh DC, Rocco T. In: David EG, Armen HT, Ehrin JA, April WA, Eds. Integrative cardiovascular pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2005: pp. 375-83.
- Conference Proceedings: Jakeman DL, Withers SGE. Carbohydrate bioengineering: interdisciplinary approaches. Proceedings of the 4th Carbohydrate Bioengineering Meeting. Stockholm, Sweden, June 10-13, 2001.Jakeman DL, Withers SGE. Carbohydrate bioengineering: interdisciplinary approaches. Proceedings of the 4th Carbohydrate Bioengineering Meeting. Stockholm, Sweden, June 10-13, 2001.
- Meeting Abstract: Hoffman BJ. Metabolism: amino acid transporters as targets for therapeutic intervention. American Chemical Society - 228th National Meeting. Philadelphia, USA 2004..
- Website: Library of Medicine. Specialized information services: Toxicology and environmental health. Available at: sis.nlm.nih.gov/sispagenotfound.html (Accessed on: May 23, 2009)
- Thesis: Mackel H. Capturing the spectra of silicon solar cells. PhD Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, December 2004.
3.2. Review ArticleOverview and analysis of the topic with background and latest updates must be addressed in all kind of reviews i.e. systematic review, narrative review and evidence based review in line with the original article. It should include original work of author on the similar subject. The suggested length for review article is 2500 to 3000 words with 40-50 references. The abstract should be non-structured with 150 words and at least 3 keywords.
3.3. Case ReportA case report is a detailed document addressing unusual disease cases, discussing their diagnosis, treatment and patients’ follow-up. The word count for case report should be 800-1200 words with 5-10 references and with a non-structured abstract of 150 words. There must be at least 3 keywords. Maximum two figures and one table are accepted in case reports.
3.4. Short CommunicationShort Communications are brief papers that provide original and important material for swift dissemination. For example, a brief communication might focus on a specific aspect of the problem or a new finding that is expected to have a significant impact. They may not normally exceed about 1500 - 1800 words and may have a non-structured abstract of about 150 words along with 10-12 references.
3.5. Letter to the EditorThe letter to the editor should be Objective, constructive and purposeful. It should offer Novel or useful information and be worth publishing, either in addition to or in lieu of on previous opinions or experience to previous published articles. Letters should be short and be concise, with clear and specific points. It may not often exceed 500 words and 5-7 references.
3.6. Guest EditorialsGuest Editorials should comprise of 400 words with 4-5 references. There can be maximum 3 authors. It is mandatory to state acknowledgment and funding disclosure if any.
4. TableTables should be given Arabic numbers (e.g. Table 3), and care should be taken to make them as simple as possible and avoid unnecessary details. The column heads should be made as brief as possible, using abbreviations liberally. Units should appear in parentheses in the column heading but not in the body of the table. There must be consecutive citation of tables within the manuscript. Tables should not be provided in picture format. Title should be given for all the tables and placed on top of the table. Footnotes should be provided as applicable. Reference/sources should be given if tables are adopted from other studies.
5. Illustrations (figures)Illustrations should not be inserted in the appropriate place in the text but should be included at the end of the paper, each on a separate page. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. Figure caption should be given below the figure. In the manuscript, legends for illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations.
High resolution image for photographs, X-ray, CT scan, MRI and photomicroaphs is required in JPEG format. Patients’ photograph should not be recognizable. Photographs should be sharp and of high-quality otherwise they may be send back to author for replacement due to inferior quality.
5.1. Scaling/ResolutionLine Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.
Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.
Combination image type is an image containing halftone, text or line art elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.
6. Unit of measurementUnits of measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury. Hematologic, clinical chemistry and other measurements may vary in terms of both local and International System of Units (SI). In such case, the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.
7. Abbreviation (symbols)Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript.
8. Reporting GuidelinesAuthors are recommended to report guidelines issued by EQUATOR NETWORK. CONSORT guidelines for randomized clinical trial, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses and STARD for diagnostic accuracy studies. These guidelines are available at www.equator-network.org.
9. Plagiarism DetectionThe submitted manuscripts are screened for plagiarism through the use of Turnitin software. Manuscripts containing similarity index higher 19% will not be entertained and will be sent back to author for correction. Guidelines provided by ICMJE, PMC and HEC regarding plagiarism are being followed in JLNH which can be accessed at www.icmje.org , www.pmc.gov.pk/ and www.hec.gov.pk.
10. Copyright/UndertakingAuthors who publish in LNHMC journals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the undertaking form or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Liaquat National grants the author(s) to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:
All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.
11. Ethics ApprovalWhen reporting on human studies, specify whether the following procedures were in line with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experiments (institutional or regional) and Helsinki Declaration. For potential studies, relating to human partners, authors are expected to seek the approval of (Regional / National / Institutional or Independent Ethics Committee or Review Board), obtain informed consent from adult research participants, and expression of approval for children aged over 7 years participating in the trial. Ensure the confidentiality of articles by mentioning participants' names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative equipment. When writing experiments on animals, specify that the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or a national law on the care and use of laboratory animals guide for the care and use of laboratory animals prepub was followed.
Evidence of approval by the local ethics committee (approval for the study of both humans as well as animals) should also be provided by the authors on demand. The experimental procedure of animals should be as human as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics should be clearly stated. Ethical standards of experiments should be in line with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA of Helsinki and the World Medical Association Declaration on the ethical principles of medical research for the study of experimental animals and humans, respectively. The journal will not consider any paper that is morally unacceptable.